Wireless Sensor Networks Introduction

WSN or sensor nets working mechanism explained

The advancement in information technology are continuously evolving , the IT infrastructure is moving from in-house self-maintained data centers toward cloud , servers became virtualized servers and NFV took responsibility of IT network security and management by the  replacement of hardware firewalls. Talking about WSNs, after the successful advancements in semiconductor technology, implementer’s are now using this technology in multiple ways that can enable a new role for computing in science.

Today, Wireless Sensor Network is working with many protocol stacks such as ZigBee, Wibree and SimpliciTI  , making a perfect ubiquitous computing network to work with an ideal IoT platform .

Having advancement in semiconductor technology along with networking and material science technologies, we are now able to move towards ubiquitous computing deployment of large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs).After the evolution of cost effective transistors chip with the Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon (CMOS) processing technologies and storage capacity, innovative products such as wireless multi-control units areavailable now to ease network implementer’s for the deployment of WSNs. Similarly the system-on-chip (SoC) devices which are consist of general-purpose MCU and RF transceiver,including amplifiers and memory, can handle both the application process and network protocol stack while concurrently providing the RF link to the network

WSN Implementation – A Soil Moisture Monitoring System

Energy Harvesting for WSN devices battery

One of the most important mechanism that must work if we want to make WSNs full functional or keep operational , we must focus on batteries charging issue , it is possible only with the use of duty cycle , i.e. if no use of WSNs devices it should be off . To make it possible we utilize the energy harvester systems, first is to convert external ambient or human-generated energy to electricity, second is to use capacitor to collect and store energy for use as per need basis, third one is using micro controller such as ZigBee based devices.

WSNs sensing technologies for energy harvesting

WSNs sensing technologies for energy harvesting are (Showing in above Diagram) :

  • MEMS – gyroscopes, accelerometers, magnetometers, pressure sensors, pyroelectric effect sensors, acoustic sensors
    • CMOS– temperature, humidity, capacitive proximity, chemical composition
    • LED– ambient light sensing, proximity sensing, chemical composition

Three main components over which WSNs works:

WSN showing nodes, GW for the billing services
  1.  Nodes
    2. Gateways
    3. Software

The nodes or routers, interface with sensors, used to monitor assets and transmits it to gateway wirelessly, the gateway then connect to a host system where we can analyze and process the data using software. The nodes works in coupling, Inductive coupling,is the mutual inductance in between two circuits. Capacitive coupling which is the mutual capacitance in between two circuits and passive backscattering is a way of reflecting from one circuit to another.


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